Free Kappa (Light Chain)

Immune cells /Plasma cells generate light chain proteins. They are known as Kappa and lambda light chains. They joined together and form Immunoglobulins (Antibody). This test evaluates the free Lambda level of the blood to diagnose multiple myeloma (Plasma cell disorder).
Test Code: 1864
₹ 5,000.00

Free Kappa test:

Why Free Kappa Test?


Immunoglobulins are made by WBCs – ‘known as plasma cells (present in the bone marrow). Antibodies target and neutralize specific threats to the body (like bacteria, viruses etc). Immunoglobulins are made up of heavy chains and light chains. Light chains of immunoglobulins (also called as ‘Bence Jones Proteins’), usually attach to the heavy chains of immunoglobulins to form a full immunoglobulin – as a complete functional unit (Antibody=Light chain +Heavy chain). But in certain conditions, these light chains (kappa and/or lambda) are outnumbered and hence these excess light chains are referred to as “free Light Chains” – eg. Free Kappa or Free Lambda chains are free un-bound immunoglobulin light chains that circulate in the serum. The free light chains test measures the amount of lambda and kappa in the blood. Higher quantities of free light chains indicate the disorder of the plasma cells. The ratio of kappa and/or lambda is an important indicator. Altered levels of kappa and/or lambda ratio indicates active myeloma. Both the levels of kappa and lambda are increased in conditions like kidney diseases i.e impaired renal clearance or hyper-gamma-globulinemia etc. Monoclonal gammopathies are characterized by “clonal expansion of plasma cells” that secrete monoclonal immunoglobulin. This free lambda test helps to diagnose Plasma Cell Disorders (Dyscrasias) like multiple-myloma and its associated conditions like bone marrow tumour, MGUS, amyloidosis etc. Some of the clinical manifestations (signs and symptoms) of multiple myloma include pain in bones, low RBCs, increased protein levels in the blood, high blood calcium levels, nerve damage, kidney disorders, vasculitis (inflammation in the blood vessels) etc. Additional tests include estimation of para-proteins, a biopsy of bone marrow, electrophoresis tests of proteins in urine and blood sample specimens (to check for the presence of M-Spike), immunoglobulin tests, bone imaging tests. Other tests include CBC, Creatinine etc.

General Instructions:

Sample Requirement: Specimen - Blood sample collected from the vein. Test PreparationSuggestions from the doctor.

NOTE - Sample for specimen collections may vary based on the patient’s condition/cases according to the patient’s presenting complaints/signs or symptoms:

SPECIMEN REQUIREMENT (Special or Rare Cases) - As instructed and guided by Physician / Clinician / Pathologist / as per Laboratory’s requirements, according to procedures and protocols.

This Multi-Specialty Clinical Referral Laboratory RTDIAGNOSTICS provides precise and accurate tests with an extensive range of testing services to the medical centres to help in the diagnosis and identification of pathology in the test specimens for infectious diseases and also to evaluate the function of organ systems of the patient. It prevents further complications and helps to stabilize and restore health to near normalcy at the earliest without delay.