Electrophoresis & Oligoclonal Band - CSF

Oligoclonal Bands – OCB antibodies (OC-Bands are the bands of antibodies produced in certain abnormal conditions such as MS) are present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from a certain condition like multiple sclerosis. Electrophoresis is an analytical methodology that helps to analyze the OCB’s in CSF Fluid, thus assisting to diagnose neurological Issues like Multiple Sclerosis.
Test Code: 413
₹ 5,000.00

Electrophoresis & Oligoclonal Band – CSF:

Why Electrophoresis & Oligoclonal band (CSF) Test?


Electrophoresis (In greek means to bear electrons) is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. Electrophoresis is an analytical technique used in chemistry for separating molecules by size, charge, and/or binding affinity, etc. Moreover, the application of its principle behind the phenomenon of electrophoresis is, also applied in the field of biochemistry research and bio-medical laboratories to separate macromolecules based on the size of the molecules. This technique applies a net negative charge to the sample specimen so that the proteins and/or nucleic acids migrate towards the positive charge. Electrophoresis is exclusively applied (like blotting techniques – southern blot, northern blot, western blot, etc) in the biochemical analysis of unknown sample specimens of the patients. Therefore the technique of Electrophoresis is extensively applied in the analysis of nucleic acids like (DNA and RNA) and protein studies in the field of medical research and in laboratory diagnosis. In medical laboratories, the procedures such as the CSF electrophoresis method are exclusively used to study the levels of protein (especially antibodies) in the CSF sample specimen. The mechanism here is that the CSF specimen of the patient’s / abnormal sample (marked unknown) is applied to a gel (solid medium allowing the movement of proteins) and a voltage is applied. Thus the proteins migrate along with the gel, is based strictly on their size (since all particles are coated uniformly with net charge). As the gel is stained significant amounts of protein or similar proteins will cause a visible band/bands based on the pathology. In this case of oligoclonal (antibody) band(s) in CSF specimen, may demonstrate two or more protein (antibody) bands – according to the underlying pathology and hence it is compared with a concurrent serum sample that serves as normal control (known). CSF is the cerebrospinal fluid that flows in the space around the spinal cord and brain. Oligoclonal bands are proteins called immunoglobulins. The abnormal presence of these bands (an indicator of illness) in the CSF indicates infection, inflammation, and/or neoplasm of the CNS eg. multiple sclerosis, neurosyphilis, acute bacterial or viral meningitis like HSV encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, polyneuritis, optic neuritis, trypanosomiasis, progressive rubella panencephalitis, Guillain Barre, neoplasm and/or other infectious or auto-immune diseases, etc. Thus Electrophoresis and Oligoclonal band (CSF) test help to screen, detect and confirm infection, inflammation, and/or neoplasm of the CNS. Additional / supporting tests are performed for evidence-based investigation (to rule out other causes that mimic similar clinical manifestations), which includes lumbar puncture for analysis of CSF eg. color, clarity, pressure during CSF collection, cell content i.e differential count, biochemical evaluation such as glucose, protein,   for differential diagnosis to establish the causative agent (i.e Infectious disease - if it belongs to viral, bacterial, acid-fast bacterium causing tuberculi, infestation like cerebral malaria, cysticercosis – larval cyst of tapeworm, etc) and/or other causes like autoimmune encephalitis, CNS neoplastic disorders, etc.  

General Instructions:

Sample Requirement: Specimen – CSF Fluid. Test Preparation: None.

NOTE - Sample for specimen collections may vary based on the patient’s condition/cases according to the patient’s presenting complaints/signs or symptoms:

SPECIMEN REQUIREMENT (Special or Rare Cases) - As instructed and guided by Physician / Clinician / Pathologist / as per Laboratory’s requirements, according to procedures and protocols.

Sample Requirement: CSF Fluid

Test Preparation: None

This Multi-Specialty Clinical Referral Laboratory RT DIAGNOSTICS provides precise and accurate tests with an extensive range of testing services to the medical centers to help in the diagnosis and identification of pathology in the test specimens for infectious diseases and also to evaluate the function of organ systems of the patient. It prevents further complications and helps to stabilize and restore health to near normalcy at the earliest without delay.